According to the characteristics of the residue that comes out through the stoma we can distinguish two large groups:
Digestive Ostomies – The residue is feces.
Urinary ostomies – The residue is urine.
Next we will introduce ourselves in the explanation of the digestive ostomies and what types there are.
Colostomy: A colostomy is a surgery that consists of the removal of the colon, the last part of the intestine. The colon is attached to the stoma, thus bypassing the rectum and anus. The stool will be passed through the ostomy bag attached to the abdomen.
The different colostomies are: ascending, transverse, descending and sigmoid according to their location.
Ileostomy: An ileostomy is a surgery in which the ileum, the final part of the small intestine is attached to the stoma, thus avoiding the colon, rectum and anus. Stool will be passed through the ostomy pouch attached to the abdomen. It is possible for the ileostomy to be located in different areas, but as a general rule, ileostomies are located on the right side of the person.
In ileostomies, the stool is liquid or semi-paste and the stool is passed throughout the day. The stoma does not allow control of stool output.
The irritability of the stool passing through the ostomy depends on several factors:
1. The PH of the residue.
2. Consistency, liquid or pasty.
3. Digestive enzyme content. In the ileostomy, the enzymes have a higher concentration so the stool will be more irritating.
Finally we explain the case of urinary ostomies:
Urostomy: A urostomy is a surgery in which the tubes that carry urine to the bladder (ureters) are attached to the stoma thus bypassing the bladder.